Maintenance Management Reliability

Understanding JIPM’s PAS for TPM

Gary Parr | March 17, 2023

The PAS 1918:2022 standard, from JIPM, will help you effectively implement and sustain TPM practices.

The New Publicly Available Specification 1918:2022 enhances TPM deployment in discrete and process industries.

Joe Cichon,

In July 2022, the JIPM (Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance), Tokyo, published a new standard: “PAS1918:2022Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), Implementing Key Performance Indicators—Guide.” The purpose of this article is to summarize the key elements of this new standard, but a bit of background is needed to better understand the concepts of TPM and its application, particularly in the U.S.

Most people in American manufacturing plants either do not know what TPM is or think (wrongly) of it as a Lean bolt-on program for the machine-maintenance team. TPM has been refined by the Japanese for more than 70 years and is a powerful scientific method for managing factories.

Do not let the word maintenance mislead you. TPM is all about managing everyone and every part of the factory. Yes, TPM is heavily focused on machines and production equipment. In reality, your factory does not produce top value unless the machines are operating at top speed, whenever necessary, and producing 100% top-quality products. This responsibility starts at order entry and follows through to customer feedback on the delivered products and services.

In many factories, each department is a silo that is not necessarily focused on reliable asset operation. TPM makes it clear that everyone must be focused on optimum machine operation and that all areas need to work together. Think about the machine time losses listed in the following table. TPM identifies those items as losses and creates a methodology to find, track, prioritize, and eliminate them. Through “horizontal deployment,” TPM can help prevent them from happening in any area of the organization. The asset-maintenance team alone cannot resolve most of these problems.

According to PAS1918:2022, TPM identifies 24 different types of losses that can be used for investigation and troubleshooting.

It is easy to become intimidated or overwhelmed when combing through all of the technical tools that are used in TPM. Even though people in the U.S. first defined the basic concepts of what later became TPM, the developers did not realize its value until the 1980s. Even then, we only partially imported some of the principles from Japan into what became known as TQM (Total Quality Management) and Lean manufacturing. As a result, U.S. management has misused and only partially understood TPM principles. American quality experts started to pick up pieces of the concepts from various Japanese companies and tried to copy the tools. Doing so, we have managed to miss the important philosophy and psychology of TPM. As a result, it has become fragmented and only partially understood.

PAS 1918:2022

PAS1918:2022 is 30-pg. document that covers the key components and requirements of a TPM program. It is available from the BSI, British Standards Institution, ANSI (American National Standards Institute), or one of the other international standard sources. JIPM’s stated purpose of PAS 1918:2022 is: “TPM emerged in Japan in the early 1970s as a maintenance system for maximizing production efficiency in the automotive supply chain. Since then, its popularity has spread across many other manufacturing industries. While numerous organizations have adopted the TPM approach, they’ve not always done so correctly. PAS 1918:2022 has been published to supply authoritative guidance on implementing TPM.”  

The standard is an excellent tool for promoting TPM knowledge throughout the world and to preserve the integrity of that body of knowledge. The guide is written in a procedural format. The PAS process enables rapid development to fulfill an immediate need in the industry. You can find the table of contents and an introduction to the PAS1918 at this link.

PAS1918:2022 highlights

Following is a summary of the key elements of PAS1918:2022:

Clauses 0 to 2: Introduction, Scope, References: As stated in the introduction, “The purpose of this PAS is to clarify the concept of TPM, help organizations to implement TPM, and provide a common understanding of it.” This standard should be helpful to organizations that are starting TPM or have already started TPM. The document is relevant to discrete and process manufacturers. The standard also compares TQM, and Lean to TPM.

Clause 3 Terms and Definitions: Clause 3 includes a total of 18 terms and definitions from metrics to key elements of TPM.

• TPM is defined as: “[a] system of maintaining and improving the integrity of production and quality systems through machines, equipment, processes, and employees that add value to the organization.”

• Another key definition in Clause 3 is the key performance metric classifiers, listed as PQCDSME—productivity (P), quality (Q), cost (C), delivery (D), safety (S), morale (M), and environment (E). This helps organizations assure metrics with a balanced scorecard.

Clause 4 TPM: This section details the concepts of TPM and covers information about the eight pillars of TPM, the 16 major loss types for a discrete-manufacturing operation, and the eight major loss types for process manufacturing. Each loss type is clearly defined:

• A great description of losses for discrete manufacturing is represented in a figure where the 16 losses are grouped into worker efficiency, equipment efficiency, and three general class losses. This is followed by a clear description of each of the 16 defined losses.

• The process manufacturing section covers the eight losses typified by the petrochemical, food processing, and other similar industries. A diagram sorts the loss types into four categories: working time, operating time, net operating time, and value operating time.

Clause 5 KPIs and KAIs: This clause covers the setting of key performance indicators and key activity indicators (KPI and KAI). KPI represents metrics that can be used to measure the results of TPM. KAI represents metrics to measure the status of TPM activities over time. It is important to assure that KPIs and KAIs are aligned with business goals and key management indicators (KMI) are based on factory goals.

• Section 5.2 lists and describes 30 KPIs for measurement. Each KPI is based on areas of PQCDSME (described in Clause 3). It describes, in detail, examples of important KPIs and includes a clear description of each and how it is calculated. Sections through 5.2.24 detail OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness). This is an important overall performance metric for a machine line.

• Section 5.3 contains a listing of 23 KAI metrics to monitor the activities in all of the TPM pillars. For example, the Focused Improvement pillar can count the number of improvements made or the number of suggestions made by employees.

Clauses 6 through 13: These sections provide an overview of the TPM pillars that address various areas of the factory. A summary of each pillar includes:

• aim and goals of the pillar and an overall summary of the methodology
• responsible persons, number of steps, and auditing requirements
• step-by-step instructions for the pillar activities, including responsibilities, planning, training, auditing requirements, and actions to assure gains are sustained.

At the end of each pillar step, the results are audited by management and relevant persons before the next step begins. Safety Health and Environment (SHE) is the exception to the required management audit and instead refers to compliance with international standards. Instead of showing a step-by-step process, the SHE pillar refers to compliance audits with international standards, such as ISO 14001, ISO 45001 (OHSAS 18001), and ISO 12100 (JIS B9700).”

Clause 14, Relationship between each pillar and KPIs and KAIs: The relationship of performance metrics to pillars is an important part of TPM. It helps to distribute the responsibility for progress into all areas of the factory. The plant can use the KPI and, if needed, create specific definitions to clarify the KPI for a plant location. It also mentions the importance of adjusting the metrics upward as each target step is achieved.

Clause 15, Evaluation of TPM milestones: This section is summarized in a nice table showing the relationship of KPI and KAI to each pillar. There are two pages of 39 KPIs and one page of 23 KAIs. These metrics should be reviewed regularly in-house. In addition, they should also be reviewed externally with consultants and awards assessments.

For more information about this standard and other TPM resources EP

Joe Cichon started his career with a BS in chemistry and physics and is currently a retired Senior VP of manufacturing from Inx International Ink Co. During his 46-year career at Inx he devoted most of his time to technology-oriented project management roles. Joe has spent his past 16 years leading TPM activities throughout the Inx U.S. locations. In 2010, the Inx plant in Edwardsville Kansas received the “TPM Excellence award Category A” from the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance. Joe is currently in the process of authoring a new book on TPM for executives and managers. 



Gary Parr

Sign up for insights, trends, & developments in
  • Machinery Solutions
  • Maintenance & Reliability Solutions
  • Energy Efficiency
Return to top